The DNA HijackersSuspect a gene is making your wheat crop vulnerable to pests? Snip it out. Wonder if a genetic modification could save the life of a patient ravished by Alzheimer’s disease? Mutate a fruit fly’s DNA and test what happens.
It’s possible, thanks to revolutionary new technology making it easier for scientists to target and ‘edit’ chromosomal DNA for the first time.
The gene editing system that could transform medicine, biology and agriculture as we know it is called CRISPR-Cas, and it’s currently featured in exquisite detail at the 3-D niche in the Town Center.
In essence, CRISPR-Cas is a DNA cutting tool. It involves two main components originating from the bacterial defense system. CRISPRs (short for clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) are sequences found within the DNA of E. coli and yogurt bacteria that help them ward off viruses.
It works like this: When a virus invades, part of its DNA gets absorbed into the bacteria’s CRISPR sequences. When the same kind of virus tries to infect again, the bacteria recognizes the foreign invader and deploys a scissor-like enzyme called Cas. The enzyme slices open the viral DNA, killing the invader.
Researchers at UW–Madison and around the world have harnessed the CRISPR-Cas dynamic duo to target DNA sequences of interest, cut them open at a precise spot and sometimes insert new genetic material. In other words, breaks caused by Cas enzymes enable scientists to hijack a cell’s natural DNA repair machinery and trick the cell into incorporating desired changes.
The system has been used to delete a gene that made bread wheat susceptible to powdery mildew, edit liver cells in mice to cure them of metabolic disease, and erase viral genes in HIV-infected immune cells.
Visitors to the niche can learn more and watch an animated video of the Cas enzyme in action.
A CRISPR Approach to Genome Editing
Wednesday, November 12
Noon – 1 p.m.
Discover how a new genome editing technique is revolutionizing basic and translational science
To determine how a gene functions, researchers utilize genome editing tools to modify, or “edit,” genome sequences. Bring your lunch to the 3-D niche to hear Jill Wildonger, assistant professor of biochemistry, discuss how the CRISPR-Cas9 technique is opening up new avenues of research in many different fields by providing the tools to easily and rapidly modify the genome of virtually any organism with exquisite control.
Registration is requested for this event; please use the form below to register.